We summarise each of the following interfaces below, and will add to the list as we identify new interface standards:
- Virtual Human Markup Language (VHML) (Marriott, 2001)
- Discourse Plan Markup Language (DPML) and Affective Presentation Markup Language (APML) (De Carolis, 2004).
- Function Markup Language (FML) and Behavior Markup Language (BML) Kopp (2006)
- Perception Markup Language (PML) (Scherer, 2012).
- Character Markup Language (CML) (Arafa, 2003)
- Avatar Markup Language (AML) (Kshirsagar, 2002)
- Avatar Sensing Markup Language (ASML) and Avatar Action Markup Language (AAML) (Slater, 2009)
Virtual Human Markup Language (VHML)https://www.vhml.org/
Built on existing standards, such as those specified by the W3C Voice Browser Activity, and added new tags to accommodate functionality for Virtual Humans.
XML/XSL based and included sub-standards to cover areas such as Diallogue Management, Facial and Body animation, speech, emotion and gesture. Whilst broad and laudable in its goals
VHML does not appear to have seen any activity for a decade (just look at that web page background!).
Marriott, A. (2001, November). VHML–Virtual Human Markup Language. In Talking Head Technology Workshop, at OzCHI Conference (pp. 252-264). Available online http://ivizlab.sfu.ca/arya/Papers/Others/Representation%20and%20Agent%20Languages/OzCHI-01-VHML.pdf
Discourse Plan Markup Language (DPML) and Affective Presentation Markup Language (APML)
Discourse Plan Markup Language (DPML) and Affective Presentation Markup Language (APML) work together to take the description of what an avatar wants to do (DPML) and enrich it to provide a set of action instructions (APML) for the avatars body.
De Carolis B., Pelachaud C., Poggi I., Steedman M. (2004) APML, a Markup Language for Believable Behavior Generation. In: Prendinger H., Ishizuka M. (eds) Life-Like Characters. Cognitive Technologies. (pp. 65-85). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
Function Markup Language (FML) and Behavior Markup Language (BML)http://www.mindmakers.org/projects/bml-1-0/wiki
Part of the SAIBA architecture where FML describes intent without referring to physical behavior, and BML describes the desired physical realization of the actions.
Kopp, S., Krenn, B., Marsella, S., Marshall, A. N., Pelachaud, C., Pirker, H., ... & Vilhjálmsson, H. (2006). Towards a common framework for multimodal generation: The behavior markup language. In: Gratch J., Young M., Aylett R., Ballin D., Olivier P. (eds) Intelligent Virtual Agents. IVA 2006. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 4133. (pp. 205-217). Springer, Berlin: Heidelberg.
Perception Markup Language (PML)
PML is inspired by FML and BML and attempts a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. The work was funded in part by DARPA.
Scherer, S., Marsella, S., Stratou, G., Xu, Y., Morbini, F., Egan, A., & Morency, L. P. (2012). Perception markup language: Towards a standardized representation of perceived nonverbal behaviors. In: Nakano, Y., Neff, M., Paiva, A., Walker, M. (eds.) Intelligent Virtual Agents, LNCS, vol. 7502, pp. 455–463. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
Character Markup Language (CML)
Character Markup Language (CML) is high level standard for body and facial control and leverages the MPEG-4 standard for avatar control.
Arafa, Y., & Mamdani, A. (2003). Scripting embodied agents behaviour with CML: character markup language. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces (pp. 313-316). ACM.
Avatar Markup Language (AML)
The Avatar Markup Language (AML) encapsulated Text to Speech, Facial Animation and Body Animation in a unified manner with appropriate synchronization, and as with CML could be used to drive MPEG-4 animations.
Kshirsagar S, Guye-Vuilleme A, Kamyab K, Magnenat-Thalmann, N, Thalmann D., Mamdani, E (2002) Avatar Markup language. In Proceedings of 8th Eurographics Workshop on Virtual Environments, ACM Press, pp. 169–177.
Avatar Sensing Markup Language (ASML) and Avatar Action Markup Language (AAML)ASML provides a way of defining the sensory events (text-speak heard, object appearance/approach, weather etc) and passing them from the body (avatar) element to the brain element. It’s counterpart, AAML provides a way of defining actions (and sequences of actions) to be passed from a virtual human brain to a manifestation of the virtual human (e.g. avatar in a 3D world, chatbot on a 2D web page).
Slater, S., & Burden, D. (2009). Emotionally responsive robotic avatars as characters in virtual worlds. In Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, VS-GAMES'09. Conference in (pp. 12-19). IEEE.